COPD : Causes and Treatments

COPD : Causes and Treatments

A set of illnesses known as chronic bronchitis and emphysema are include under the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD gradually makes breathing more challenging. While lung damage cannot be reverse, lifestyle adjustments and medication adjustments can help you manage the symptoms.

How widespread is COPD?

According to statistics, there will be around 15 million Americans with COPD diagnoses in 2020, and another 12 million will not have received a diagnosis.

What causes COPD?

Smoking is the major or primary cause of COPD. Yet not every smoker gets the illness. If any of the following apply to you: You were given the gender of a woman at birth.

  • Are above 65 years old.
  • Has experience with air pollution.
  • Have experience with dust, fumes, or chemicals.
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, genetic risk factor for COPD, is present (AAT).
  • Had a lot of respiratory illnesses as a youngster.

What results in COPD?

  • 90% of COPD cases are related to cigarette smoking. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, a genetic condition, is one of the other reasons.
  • Hands-on smoking
  • Air toxicity
  • Dust and odours during work

What signs and symptoms do people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experience?

  • Mucous in the cough that last for a long time
  • Taking a deep breath is difficult
  • Breathing problems after light activity (like walking or using the stairs)
  • When undertaking routine everyday chores, breathlessness
  • Wheezing

How is COPD diagnosed?

Your healthcare professional will review your medical history, conduct a physical examination, and order certain tests, including as breathing tests, to evaluate the condition of your lungs and overall health.

Medical background

  • Your healthcare practitioner will enquire about your smoking habits in order to diagnose COPD.
  • Have you experienced prolonged exposure to air pollution or dust?
  • Do additional family members have COPD?
  • Do you get breathlessness while you exercise? While sleeping?
  • Have you had a persistent cough or wheeze?
  • Coughing up phlegm?

Exam of the body

  • Your doctor will do a physical exam that includes the following to assist with the diagnosis:
  • Monitoring your heart and lungs.
  • Examining your pulse and blood pressure.
  • Checking your throat and nose.
  • Examining your ankles and feet
  • Spirometry is a quick test use by test providers to assess how effectively your lungs function. You blow air into a tube that is connect to a machine to conduct this test.

How is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated?

The goal of COPD treatment is to reduce symptoms like coughing and breathing issues while also preventing respiratory infections. Your provider could advise:

  1. Bronchodilators: These medications widen the airways.  After inhaling mist containing bronchodilators, your breathing becomes easier.
  2. Anti-inflammatory medications: Steroids can be use orally or inhaled to treat lung inflammation.
  3. Additional oxygen: If you have hypoxia, portable oxygen tank can be necessary to increase your blood oxygen levels.
  4. Antibiotics: Lung infections caused by COPD might exacerbate the condition of your already weakened lungs.
  5. Immunizations: If you have COPD, you are more vulnerable to respiratory infections. In particular, vaccinations are essential for avoiding the flu and pneumonia.
  6. Rehabilitation: To reduce breathlessness and focus on training, rehabilitation programmes teach efficient breathing techniques. Fitness can extend what you can perform with your lungs if it is maintained.
  7. Anticholinergics: These medications ease the muscles that constrict around the airways, allowing mucus to be expel from the lungs. Muscles that are relax allow for more airflow.
  8. Leukotriene Modifiers: These drugs have an effect on leukotrienes, which are naturally occurring substances in the body that constrict airways and produce fluid and mucus.
  9. Expectorants: These drugs thin the mucus in the airways, making it easier for you to cough up. These medications should be taken with ounces of water.
  10. Antihistamines: These drugs relieve stuffy noses, watery eyes, and sneezing. Antihistamines can dry down the air passages, which make breathing challenging and makes it challenging to cough up extra mucus, despite the fact that they are helpful in alleviating these symptoms.
  11. Antivirals: it may be prescribed by your doctor to treat or prevent viral diseases, most commonly to treat or prevent influenza (“the flu”). Those with COPD are more vulnerable to influenza.


Lung damage is brought on by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cannot be repaired. You can, however, learn how to control symptoms. If you take the require actions to strengthen your lung capacity and combat lung irritation, you’ll breathe more easily. You’ll have the best chance of carrying on with your favourite activities by seeking therapy as soon as possible.