Diabetes Mellitus (DM) – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders

Hyperglycemia is the result of reduced insulin secretion and varying degrees of peripheral insulin resistance in people with diabetes mellitus. Early signs of hyperglycemia include impaired vision, polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria. Nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, vascular disease, and an increased risk of infection are examples of later consequences. Plasma glucose is measured to make the diagnosis. The course of Diabetes Mellitus treatment includes diet, exercise, and drugs that lower blood sugar, such as insulin, oral antihyperglycemic drugs, and injectable non-insulin drugs. Adequate glycemic control can either delay or prevent complications; heart disease continues to be the primary cause of death in people with diabetes mellitus.

Different types of Diabetes Mellitus(DM)

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) can be divided into two primary groups.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

In those who are genetically predisposed, autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction may be triggered by environmental exposure, resulting in the absence of insulin production. Subclinical destruction occurs over months or years, resulting in a loss in beta-cell mass sufficient for insulin concentrations to no longer be able to control plasma glucose levels. Most cases of type 1 diabetes occur in infancy or adolescence.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

Insulin resistance has resulted in insufficient insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (formerly known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes). The incapacity to inhibit hepatic glucose synthesis results from hepatic insulin resistance, while peripheral insulin resistance hinders peripheral glucose absorption. Fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia result from this combo. Insulin levels are often extremely high, particularly in the early in the disease.

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus(DM)

Elevated blood glucose levels are linked to the symptoms of diabetes. They consist of:

  • Excessive thirst, hunger, and urination
  • Loss of weight
  • Increased susceptibility to infections, particularly fungal or yeast infections

How is DM diagnosed?

Using a blood test, medical professionals can diagnose diabetes by looking at your glucose level. There are three ways to determine your blood glucose level:

  • Fasting blood glucose test: You must fast (i.e., consume nothing but water) for at least eight hours before to the test. This test gives your provider access to your baseline blood sugar because food can significantly alter blood sugar levels
  • Random blood glucose test: The term “random” refers to the fact that you can do this test whenever you choose, even if you haven’t fasted
  • A1c: Your average blood glucose level for the previous two to three months is provided by this test, commonly known as the glycated haemoglobin test (HbA1C)
  • Providers order an oral glucose tolerance test to screen for and diagnose gestational diabetes
  • The results of the tests below usually show whether you have prediabetes, diabetes, or neither. These figures could be a little off. Furthermore, other tests are use by medical professionals to detect diabetes

How to prevent DM?

You are more likely to acquire type 2 diabetes if you have “pre-diabetes” (blood glucose levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL) on your blood glucose test, or if you have a close relative who has the disease, especially a parent or sibling.  The following actions can help avoid type 2 diabetes:

  • Keeping your goal weight in mind
  • Exercising at least five times a week, even if it doesn’t help you reach your goal weight. A brisk walk of one to two miles can take thirty minutes. This is because, even if you don’t lose weight, frequent exercise lowers insulin resistance
  • Consuming a balanced diet
  • Ingesting medicine. For those with prediabetes, metformin (Glucophage) provides an extra layer of defence

Even if you now have type 2 diabetes, consequences can still be postpone or avoided:

  • Keep your blood sugar under strict control. Most problems are less likely as a result of this.
  • Reduce your chance of developing heart-related issues by Thinking about taking a daily low-dose aspirin.
  • Taking aggressive measures to control other atherosclerosis risk factors, like:
  • Elevated blood pressure
  • High triglycerides and cholesterol
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Insanity
  • To lessen foot and eye issues, see a podiatrist and an eye doctor annually.

How to get treated with Diabetes Mellitus?

  • Diet and exercise
  • Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically starts with diet and exercise-induced weight loss. A diabetic should consume a diet low in cholesterol and saturated fats.
  • Devoid of Trans fats
  • Low overall calorie intake

Balanced nutrition containing large amounts of:

  • Entire-grain meals
  • Oils with monounsaturated
  • Produce and berries
  • Some people successfully manage their type 2 diabetes with merely rigorous exercise and weight loss.
  • Exercise and diet are still crucial for managing diabetes, even in cases when prescription drugs are necessary.


Some forms of diabetes mellitus , such as kind 1 and 1.5, are brought on by uncontrollable circumstances. Some, like type 2, can be avoid by improving dietary choices, upping physical activity, and decreasing body weight. Talk to your doctor about the dangers associated with diabetes. Have your blood sugar checked if you’re at risk, and follow your doctor’s recommendations on blood sugar management.