Osteoarthritis : Types, Causes and Treatments

Osteoarthritis : Types, Causes and Treatments
The most common kind of arthritis is osteoarthritis, commonly known as degenerative joint disease (DJD). Osteoarthritis is more prone to develop as people age. Osteoarthritis changes generally occur gradually over lengthy period of time, however there are rare outliers. Inflammation and injury to the joint lead to bony changes, the deterioration of tendons, ligaments, and cartilage, which result in pain, swelling, and joint deformity.

Type of Osteoarthritis

Primary Osteoarthritis

This kind of osteoarthritis is the most often diagnosed and is thought to develop mostly as a result of “wear and tear” over time. As result, it is associated with becoming older; in fact, age is the biggest risk factor for developing OA, and the longer person utilizes their joints, the greater the likelihood that they will do so.

Secondary Osteoarthritis

This kind of osteoarthritis is brought on by circumstances that alter the microenvironment of the cartilage. Significant trauma, congenital joint abnormalities, metabolic problems, and diseases that affect the normal structure and function of cartilage are some of these situations.

How does Osteoarthritis impact people?

On X-ray, osteoarthritis may be seen in around 80% of older persons who are 55 years of age and older. An estimated 60% of them have symptoms. Almost 30 million persons in the United States are among the 240 million adults globally who are believe to have symptoms of osteoarthritis. Post-menopausal women have greater incidence of knee osteoarthritis than do men.

What raises one’s risk for Osteoarthritis?

Other risk factors that enhance the likelihood of getting it include obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, sex, and heredity, in addition to age and secondary causes such inflammatory arthritis and past trauma/injury.

Obesity increase the risk of osteoarthritis, especially in the knee. In addition to taxing the body’s weight-bearing systems, obesity has pro-inflammatory and metabolic side effects.

The inflammatory response in the body is influence by both diabetes and hyperlipidemia, which raises the risk of Osteoarthritis. Oxidation of lipids can also lead to deposits in cartilage that obstruct the blood flow of subchondral bone, much as how atherosclerosis affects blood vessels.

Oestrogen levels decline in postmenopausal women. Since oestrogen is protective of bone health, especially lowering oxidative stress to the cartilage, it raises the risk of knee osteoarthritis.

While those born with certain bone illnesses or genetic features may be more prone to develop it, heredity can play a part in the development of osteoarthritis.

Causes of Degenerative joint disease

Osteoarthritis makes breaking a bone more likely. Most women over 50 will experience a hip, wrist, or vertebral fracture at some point in their lifetime. For the creation and maintenance of strong bones, your body requires the minerals calcium and phosphate.

Your body continues to both generate new bone and reabsorb old bone throughout your lifetime.

As more old bone is reabsorb than new bone is produce, bone loss occurs. Bone loss can occasionally happen for unknown reasons. Sometimes, bone thinning and bone loss run in families. The majority of women with bone loss are often Caucasian, elderly women.

Anything that prevents your body from producing enough new bone or causes your body to destroy too much bone can lead to brittle, weak bones. As you become older, your body could reabsorb calcium and phosphate from your bones rather of maintaining them there. The result is weaker bones.

How is Osteoarthritis treated?

It is impossible to treat osteoarthritis. A mix of pharmaceutical and non-pharmacological therapies often work effectively to control mild to severe symptoms. medical procedures, and recommendations include:

  • Medicines (topical pain treatments and oral analgesics include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs)
  • Exercise (land- and water-based)
  • Use hot and cold packs as needed (local modalities).
  • Exercise, occupational, and physical therapy.
  • Loss of weight (if overweight).
  • Eating well, controlling cholesterol and diabetes.
  • supporting tools such canes, walkers, shoe inserts, orthotics, and braces.
  • Therapies including intra-articular injections of steroids and hyaluronic acid gel.
  • Techniques used in complementary and alternative medicine, such as vitamins and supplements.
  • When alternative medical treatments are ineffective or have been tried, surgery may be helpful to relieve pain and restore function, especially with severe OA.


To develop and maintain strong bones, make sure you consume adequate calcium and vitamin D. You can receive these and other crucial nutrients by eating a healthy, balanced diet.

Further preventative advice:

  • Stop taking alcohol
  • Do not smoke
  • Do regular exercise